Dr. Kim has dedicated her adult life to the research of creativity and innovators because she truly wants to change the world. Specifically, she wants to help parents, educators, and children achieve their dreams through the power of creativity. She credits creativity with saving her own life, so it holds a special place in her heart.

1. Dr. Kim’s Research Background
She was born and raised in a remote, mountainous village in South Korea. She lived in Korea until she was thirty-three, but much of her Korean life was miserable. She struggled to conform to the Confucian principles of East Asian culture. Her journey is marked with cultural oppression, personal anguish, and professional challenges. With the help of her mother, a teacher, and U.S. soldiers, an ember of her creativity survived the many hardships. U.S. military soldiers from a post near her village awarded her and another boy an academic scholarship for about $300. This was a lot of money, and her family used it to improve her studying conditions so that she could be more focused on her learning. This single act of kindness affected the lives of all the students and teachers of her middle school, and it had a deep impact on her parents. Her teachers began encouraging her to study even harder and escape the poverty of her village so that someday she could help more people like her. She became attuned to instances in history and the news of noble passions improving everyday life. She knows her hard work was not done in vain when she makes a difference by guiding a student, a teacher, a parent, or anyone.

Dr. Kim was empowered and inspired academically, but she struggled with her future identity. From the time she could talk, she spewed countless questions in an attempt to feed her insatiable curiosity. Her questions were often met with resistance, and in graduate school her professors and teachers interpreted her inquisitiveness as being disrespectful. She always felt different from other Korean women, like a square peg in a round hole, a misfit. She became a teacher and empathized with students who asked numerous questions, especially unexpected or unusual questions. Dr. Kim was intrigued by the students who were labeled misfits. She realized her preferences and behavior as a teacher and an individual conflicted with Confucian principles. However, once she moved to America and went to the Torrance Center in her thirties she recognized the constant conflict that engulfed her life was a clash between cultural values and creativity.

2. Dr. Kim’s Research in Doctoral Programs Before UGA's Doctoral Program
Through Dr. Kim’s earlier doctoral programs, before her doctoral program at the University of Georgia (UGA), she focused her research on intelligence and how to cultivate it through proper education and environment. She learned a lot about intelligence, which led to her study of Nobel laureates (the first Nobel laureate she studied was Marie Curie). She was astonished to discover that high intelligence isn’t necessary to win a Nobel Prize or accomplish innovation, but creativity is necessary. This led her to study creativity, the process of making something unique and useful, in-depth. Creativity is much more than arts and crafts; it is a key differentiator and the source of all significant achievements throughout history. The successful result of the creative process is what the world recognizes as “innovation." Upon discovering that creativity was the key for innovation, she pivoted her research focus to creativity. She wanted to develop ways to make it a more central competency in education, industry, and everyday wellness. Fortunately, there has been a tremendous amount of data from education and industry about the factors that cause or kill creativity, including a very rich and detailed history about the people and experiences that shaped the great innovators. She extensively researched the early lives of great innovators, including Albert Einstein, Steve Jobs, Nelson Mandela, Georgia O’Keeffe, and Marie Curie—how their early creative climates nurtured their creative attitudes and creative-thinking skills. She researched in such detail that their experiences can be replicated in homes and classrooms today.

3. Dr. Kim’s Research in UGA's Doctoral Program and Beyond
Dr. Kim’s creativity research has focused on the influence of setting, environment, and climate on individuals’ attitudes and their thinking skills. She has researched the impact of culture and cultural diversity on individuals’ attitudes, behaviors, and minds. She has researched how parenting and teaching in different cultures impact children’s creativity development, especially in Confucian (including “tiger-mother” parenting/teaching) and Jewish cultures. She has found that the cultural differences between the two parenting and teaching styles explain why Jews have won a Nobel Prize 625 times more than Asians.

She has researched the impact of patriarchal cultural climates, especially their gender bias, on women’s creativity. She has found that the patriarchal cultural differences explain why Marie Curie (the first woman to win a Nobel Prize) won two Nobel prizes while Mileva Marić’s (Albert Einstein’s first wife) creativity was trampled. They were both bright and rare female physicists with high creative potential and early achievement, but they lived in opposite patriarchal climates.

Dr. Kim has researched the influence of school climates on creative high school students’ dropout rates and ways they can be prevented from dropping out, such as changing school climates and using extracurricular activities to express and fulfill their creative potential. She has researched the influence of school and home climates on elementary school creative students' underachievement, attempting to understand why they underachieve and how they can succeed in school and eventually in life. Although she has extensively studied the measurement of creativity, it is so she can better identify and understand individuals who have creative potential, and how they can be provided with better climates for their creative attitudes and creative thinking skills to blossom.

While researching the influence of cultural, societal, school, and home climates on individuals’ attitudes and thinking skills, Dr. Kim further researched the constructs of creative thinking and how they are similar or different from the constructs of intelligence. The result of one of Dr. Kim’s meta-analysis studies indicated that there is a negligible relationship between these two, and that all children can be creative if they are in a climate that nurtures their creative attitudes, which enables their creative thinking. It also indicated that individuals without high IQs can be creative if they develop expertise—the full and complete knowledge and skills of a particular subject—in their curiosity, preference, or interest (CPI). Many researchers intuitively understood the importance of expertise for innovation, but they lacked the knowledge and tools to explain, replicate, and apply it. Dr. Kim’s unique synthesis of existing research findings filled this gap in the research. She further researched the relationship between creativity and intelligence by examining their changes over time. Because the Flynn Effect had shown that IQ had increased worldwide, if creative thinking and intelligence were similar concepts, then creative thinking would have increased. However, she found that creativity in America has decreased since 1990 (called “the Creativity Crisis”).

4. Dr. Kim’s CATs Model for Research into Practice
For years, Dr. Kim has extensively researched the various aspects of creativity, which was always presented and written for a specialized academic audience. However, in order to achieve her goal of changing the world, since 2010, she has worked tirelessly on compiling her creativity development research in a way that everybody can understand and use. After years of hard work, she created and presented original gardening metaphors for creativity development in her new book because helping individuals reach their full creative potential is very much like growing plants. The use of gardening metaphors illustrates the simple and powerful steps for innovation. Focusing on increasing children’s test scores with test-taking skills—instead of on developing their full creative potential—turns them into human bonsai trees. (Bonsai trees are ornamentally shaped trees that are artificially pruned and wired, preventing them from reaching their full size.) Her research has indicated that American children are now pruned and wired to be un-creative, preventing them from reaching their full potential. The strengths that helped make America great have been “bonsaied,” and the current test-centric climate is causing long-lasting, detrimental effects.

Dr. Kim’s creativity research sheds light on imperative need for change in the way children are being educated. Her research includes better educational and child-rearing strategies that cultivate the creative climates necessary for nurturing creative attitudes, and thus applying creative thinking skills. Her extensive research has resulted in real-world exercises that are easy to integrate into the lessons or practices that teachers or parents already make. They can help academic achievers become innovators. Her research has also resulted in ways adults can improve their own creativity by finding and growing an interest and turning it into a passion. It has also resulted in bases and courses of action to make organizations more efficient, effective, and capable of producing unique and useful ideas, services, or products.

Based on Dr. Kim’s broad range of research studies on creative thinking, including brain-behavior relationships, eminent innovators’ personality traits and behaviors, and an extensive analysis of creativity test scores, she has created a conceptual model that identifies the essential elements of innovation. These elements originate in innovators’ creative attitudes, and in turn, are nurtured by creative climates. Although much of her work has been published in cognitive psychology journals and presented in cognitive psychology venues, her creativity research is interdisciplinary and includes experimental, developmental, neuroscience, and computational approaches—all of which has led to the CATs model below. It is a comprehensive conceptual and explanatory framework for understanding creativity and how it develops into innovation. As Figure 1 shows, CATs denotes the creative Climate (C), creative Attitude (A), and creative Thinking skills (Ts). The Climate is represented by the circle that surrounds the cactus, which nurtures the Attitude represented at the heart of the cactus. Then this develops the Thinking skills represented at the mind of the cactus, which results in innovation, represented by the flowers of the cactus. The three practical steps for innovation (blossoming into a unique and useful creation) are:
Step 1: Cultivate creative Climates
Step 2: Nurture creative Attitudes
Step 3: Apply creative Thinking skills

Figure 1. Creative CATs (Climates, Attitudes, and Thinking skills)

Picture1.png
Step 1 of CATs: Cultivate Creative Climates
Dr. Kim has researched how to cultivate creative climates by examining what parents and teachers of innovators did. She has found that both innovators and creative underachievers are made through their climates. Because she was raised in a farming village, she has recognized that many of the climates are similar the components of growing strong and productive plants: diverse soil, bright sun, fierce storms, and free space. Dr. Kim’s research has indicated that “4S” climates are needed for children’s creativity to flourish: diverse resources and experiences (soil), inspiration and encouragement (sun), high expectations and challenges (storms), and freedom to be alone and unique (space). The 4S climates emerged from her syntheses and factor-analyses of empirical creativity studies and great innovators’ life stories.

Step 2 of CATs: Nurture Creative Attitudes
Creative attitudes (the way individuals react to the creative climates) are also necessary for innovation. Dr. Kim’s research has resulted in twenty-seven creative attitudes (innovators’ characteristics) and ways to nurture these attitudes that contribute to creative-thinking skills. She has categorized them into the 4S creative attitudes (five soil, six sun,eight storm, and eight space attitudes). The 4S attitudes are mainly influenced or changed by the climates and can be learned and further developed through practice.

Creative Attitudes: Positive or Negative? Not every creative individual possesses all of the twenty-seven attitudes, but the greatest innovators did. These attitudes predict innovation in all fields by enabling individuals’ creative thinking skills and the desire to use them. However, Dr. Kim’s research found that each attitude can be considered negative to others, especially in anti-creative climates. Dr. Kim has indicated that the 4S attitudes of creativity are a gift but in anti-creative climates they can be more of a curse. Individuals who possess these creative attitudes are scolded or punished for them. Even those who believe they value creativity, their actions tend to devalue it. For example, they often value a conforming attitude as indicative of creativity, and they devalue the nonconforming attitude or the defiant attitude. She uses a cactus to exemplify a creative individual’s attitude because creative individuals may appear that way to others. For example, people often admire both the cactus’s ability to thrive in a desert and its flowers’ vibrant colors. But they often do not want to be near the cactus because its thorns are painful to touch—although they are necessary for its survival. Similarly, most people admire a creative individual’s achievement, but they denounce their attitudes because they are viewed to be negative in un-creative or anti-creative climates. However, the 4S climates help parents and educators turn “troublemakers” or children’s “negative” attitudes around by seeing the positive aspects of the attitudes and by understanding similar disruptive or distracted behaviors in the early lives of famous innovators: Albert Einstein, Steve Jobs, Nelson Mandela, Georgia O’Keeffe, and Marie Curie.

All individuals are born with creative potential. Successful creativity depends not on the amount of creative potential certain individuals are born with, but on how much of their creativity they retain as they grow up—how much the world they grow up in allows them to keep and what remains after their creative attitudes/thinking skills are stifled or bonsaied by their climates. Their creativity is bonsaied by home climates first, and then by school climates next, which are the most critical climates for individuals’ creativity development. While others were staring only at a cactus’ thorns, parents and teachers of innovators saw the cactus for its strength, uniqueness, and potentially colorful flowers. They cultivated the 4S climates and saw the positive aspects of children’s 4S attitudes. They encouraged them to use their attitudes to apply ION thinking skills for innovation, which eventually changed history.

Step 3 of CATs: Apply Creative-Thinking Skills
Dr. Kim’s extensive analyses of creativity-test scores and empirical studies and theories of creativity and intelligence have resulted in the concepts of inbox, outbox, and newbox (ION) thinking skills and Apple-tree Creative-thinking Process (ACP). The 4S attitudes enable individuals’ ION-thinking skills during the ACP. The soil and storm attitudes enable individuals’ useful inbox and newbox thinking. The sun and space attitudes enable individuals’ unique outbox and newbox thinking.

The ACP: ACP is an eight-stage process analogous to the seasonal growth cycle of apple trees. Each stage represents activities that innovators must do, or interactions that they must have, to bring a unique idea to complete fruition. ACP begins with winter (Stage 1: expertise development; and Stage 2: needs identification); then becomes spring (Stage 3: idea generation; Stage 4: subconscious processing; and Stage 5: idea evaluation); then becomes summer (Stage 6: synthesis; and Stage 7: transformation); and finally becomes autumn (Stage 8: promotion). Within the ACP, applying all ION-thinking skills at appropriate times facilitates innovation: developing expertise; then generating and evaluating ideas; then connecting and synthesizing previously unrelated ideas; and then refining, transforming, and promoting them as something unique and useful, which defies the traditional categorization.

Inbox Thinking: Inbox thinking is convergent, narrow, and deep (inside the box) to gain or evaluate knowledge and skills, which includes developing expertise and critical thinking. Inbox thinking works like a zoom lens that helps children zoom in on narrow knowledge and skills to look closely at details or evaluate them, and this contributes to the usefulness of an idea or a creation. Memorization and comprehension skills are necessary for developing initial expertise, and further development requires application skills so that individuals can use their learned material to apply it or solve new and real world issues. Expertise provides the foundation of outbox and newbox thinking. Critical thinking includes the skills of analyzing and evaluating ideas that are generated later during outbox thinking.

Outbox Thinking: Outbox thinking is quick and broad (outside the box) to imagine diverse possibilities. It is divergent or outside-the-box thinking that seeks nonconforming ideas. It generates fluent (many, spontaneous) ideas, flexible (different angles or kinds of) ideas, and original (novel) ideas. It works like a wide-angle lens that helps individuals take a broad field of view and imagine many novel approaches to a problem or an opportunity, which ensures uniqueness of an idea or a creation. Outbox thinking is not random flailing - benefits from a readily accessible reservoir of expertise.

Newbox Thinking: Newbox thinking combines elements of inbox and outbox thinking and transforms them into a new creation (new box). It uses both the zoom and wide-angle lenses to uniquely combine and synthesize unrelated ideas. Then usefully refine and transform the synthesized ideas into a creation, which ensures both uniqueness and usefulness of the creation. Finally, newbox thinking promotes the creation so that it can be recognized as an innovation by others and society.

1) Synthesis skill for newbox thinking. Synthesis is recombining things and information into a new coherent whole without losing the essence of each part. Innovation often starts by synthesizing elements of existing ideas because innovation is built on existing knowledge/skills. The a. big-picture-thinking, b. boundary-crossing, c. pattern-finding, and d. dot-connecting skills are used for synthesis. Each synthesis skill is an opportunity to connect different aspects of unrelated ideas.

2) Transformation skill for newbox thinking. Synthesized ideas must be transformed into a useful creation by elaborating, refining, and simplifying them. When transforming ideas into their maximum usefulness, the perfect balance between elaboration and simplicity is critical. The a. persistent-elaboration, b. imaginative-refinement, and c. pursuit-of-simplicity skills are used for transformation.

3) Promotion skill for newbox thinking. The creation must be promoted at the right place and right time. The right place is one that is receptive to the creation—often big multicultural cities, which value nonconformity and accept outsiders from diverse nationalities, ethnicities, religions, and sexual orientations. Promotion skills include articulation, naming, and storytelling. It's helpful to use a metaphor and nonverbal communication such as visualizing and using the five senses and body movement.

5. Dr. Kim's Publications
1) Articles in Refereed Journals
Kim, K. H. (in press). How can my child achieve innovation? Parenting for High Potential.

Kim, K. H. (in press). Creativity in Eastern and Western cultures. Journal of Indigenous and Cultural Psychology.

Kim, K. H. (in press). Which creativity tests should would we use? Creativity Research Journal.

Kim, K. H. (in press). What is creativity and what is not. International Schools Journal.

Kim, K. H., & Hull, R. J. (2016 Article). Creativity and gangs: Who joins gangs and why? A critical review of the literature, World Journal of Behavioral Science, 2, 12–18

Kim, K. H., & Hull, M. F. (2015 Article). Effects of Motivation, ACT/SAT, GPA, and SES on College Choice for Academically Advanced Students and Other Students. World Journal of Educational Research, 2(2), 140-167.

Kim, K. H., & Hull, M. F. (2015 Article) Effects of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation, Self-Efficacy, and Educational Expectations on Students’ Post-Secondary Institutional Choice. World Journal of Behavioral Science, 1(1), 31-46.

Kim, K. H., & Zabelina, D. (2015 Article). Cultural bias in assessment: Can creativity assessment help? International Journal of Critical Pedagogy, 6(2), 129-147

Kim, K. H., VanTassel-Baska, J., Bracken, B. A., Feng, A., & Stambaugh, T. (2014 Article). Assessing Science Reasoning and Conceptual Understanding in the Primary Grades Using Standardized and Performance-based Assessments. Journal of Advanced Academics, 25(1), 47-66.

Roege, G. B., & Kim, K. H. (2013 Article). Why we need art education. Empirical Studies of the Arts, 31(2), 121-130.

Kim, K. H., VanTassel-Baska, J., Bracken, B. A., Feng, A., T. Stambaugh, T., & Bland. L. (2012 Article). Project Clarion: Three years of science instruction in title I schools among K-Third grade students. Research in Science Education, 42(5), 813-829. doi:10.1007/s11165-011-9218-5

Kim, K. H., & Hull, M. F. (2012 Article). Creative personality and anti-creative environment for high school dropouts. Creativity Research Journal, 24, 169-176. doi:10.1080/10400419.2012.677318

Kim, K. H. (2011 Article). Proven reliability and validity of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 5, 314-315. doi:10.1037/a0021916

Coiner, J., & Kim, K. H. (2011 Review). Creativity and literature: Book review: Art Therapy, Research and Evidence-based Practice by Andrea Gilroy. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health, 6, 249-254. doi: 10.1080/15401383.2011.607081

Kim, K. H. (2011 [Article]). The creativity crisis: The decrease in creative thinking scores on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Creativity Research Journal, 23, 285-289. doi:10.1080/10400419.2011.627805

Kim, K. H., Lee, H., Chae, K., Andersen, L., & Lawrence, C. (2011[Article]). Creativity and Confucianism among American and Korean educators. Creativity Research Journal, 23, 357-371. doi:10.1080/10400419.2011.621853

Kim, K. H. (2011 [Article]). The APA 2009 Division 10 debate: Are the Torrance tests still relevant in the 21st century? Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 5, 302-308. doi:10.1037/a0021917

Lee, H., & Kim, K. H. (2011Article). Is speaking more language to be more creative? Relationship between bilingualism and creativity with multicultural link. Personality and Individual Differences, 50, 1186-1190. doi:10.1016/j.paid.2011.01.039

Deighton, H., & Kim, K. H. (2011). A critical review of the Career Counselor’s Handbook, Career Convergence. April, 2011. http://associationdatabase.com/aws/NCDA/pt/sd/news_article/41129/_PARENT/layout_details/falseLee, H., & Kim, K. H. (2010 [Article]). Relationships between bilingualism and adaptive creative style, innovative creative style, and creative strengths among Korean American students. Creativity Research Journal, 22, 402-407.

Cheng, Y-L., Kim, K. H., & Hull, M. F. (2010 [Article]). Comparisons of Creative Styles and Personality Types between American and Taiwanese College Student and the Relationship between Creative Potential and Personality Types. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 4(2), 103-112.

Kim, K. H. (2010 [Article]). Measurements, Causes, and Effects of Creativity. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 4, 131-135.

Kim, K. H., & VanTassel-Baska, J. (2010 [Article]). The relationship between creativity and behavior problems among underachievers. Creativity Research Journal. 22, 185-193.

Kim, K. H. (2009 [Article]). Cultural influence on creativity: The relationship between Asian culture (Confucianism) and creativity among Korean educators. Journal of Creative Behavior, 43(2), 73-93.

Kim, K. H., Shim, J. Y., & Hull. M. (2009 [Article]). Korean concepts of giftedness and the self-perceived characteristics of students selected for gifted programs. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 3, 104-111.

Kim, K. H. (2008a [Article]). Commentary: The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking already overcome many of the perceived weaknesses that Silvia et al.’s (2008) methods are intended to correct. Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts, 2, 97-99.

Kim, K. H. (2008b [Article]). Meta-analyses of the relationship of creative achievement to both IQ and divergent thinking test scores. Journal of Creative Behavior, 42, 106-130.

Kim, K. H. (2008c [Article]). Underachievement and creativity: Are gifted underachievers highly creative? Creativity Research Journal, 20, 234-242.

Kim, K. H. (2007 [Article]). Exploring the interactions between Asian culture (Confucianism) and creativity. Journal of Creative Behavior, 41, 28-54.

Kim, K. H. (2006a [Article]). Can we trust creativity tests? A review of The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking (TTCT). Creativity Research Journal, 18, 3-14.

Kim, K. H. (2006b [Article]). Is creativity unidimensional or multidimensional? Analyses of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Creativity Research Journal.18, 251-260.

Kim, K. H., Cramond, B., & Bandalos, D. L. (2006 Article). The latent structure and measurement invariance of scores on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking –Figural. Educational and Psychological Measurement.66, 459-477.

Kim, K. H. (2005a [Article]). Can only intelligent people be creative? A meta-analysis. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 16, 57-66.

Kim, K. H. (2005b Article). Learning from each other: Creativity in East Asian and American education. Creativity Research Journal, 17, 57-66.

Seo, H-A, Lee, E. A., & Kim, K. H. (2005 [Article]) Korean science teachers’ understanding of creativity in gifted education. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education. 16, 98-10

Kim, K. H., & Margison, J. (2005 [Article]). Cultural influence on creativity: The relationship between creativity and Confucianism (Abstract). Roeper Review, 27, 186.

2) Book, Book Chapters, and Encyclopedia Entries
Kim, K. H., & Pierce, A. R. (in press). Creative process: The Apple-tree creative process. In E.G.Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York:Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., Siradakis, A., Williams, N. (in press). Rural creativity and urban creativity. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Williams, N. (in press). Reading for creativity. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Hua, Y. (in press). Creativity and Confucian (Asian) parenting. In E.G. Carayannis,Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H. (in press). Creative climates: The 4S (soil, sun, storm, and space) climates.In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York:Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Norton, N. (in press). Gender-bias-free parenting for creativity. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Choi, D. (in press). Play for creativity. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Martin, C. V. (in press). Creative attitudes: The 4S (soil, sun, storm, and space) attitudes.In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York:Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Hao, Y. (in press). Women creativity in Patriarchal Culture. In E.G. Carayannis,Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Williams, N. (in press). Adaptive creativity and innovative creativity. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Williams, N. (in press). Decrease in creativity. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Williams, N. (in press). Creative thinking skills: Inbox, outbox, and newbox (ION) thinking skills. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Martin, C. V. (in press). Creative, or a behavior problem? In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Martin, C. V. (in press). Creativity and age. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Hua, Y. (in press). Creativity and Confucianism. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Hao, Y. (in press). Creativity climate tests, creative attitudes tests, and creative-thinking skills tests. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Martin, C. V. (in press). ADHD, creativity, or both? In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Wilson, J. (in press). Compassion for creativity and creativity for compassion. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Hua, Y. (in press). Creativity and Confucian parenting. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H. (in press). iCreativity for adults: Web-based creative climate, attitude, and thinking-skill tests for adults

Kim, K. H. (in press). iCreativity for children: Web-based creative climate, attitude, and thinking-skill tests for Children

Kim, K. H. (2016 [Prometheus Books, Amazon, Barnes & Noble, IndieBound, Books-A-Million, Wordery]). The creativity challenge: How we can recapture American innovation. New York: Prometheus Books.

Kim, K. H., & Coxen, S. (2016 Chapter). Fostering creativity using robotics among students in STEM Fields to reverse the creativity crisis. In M. Demetrikopoulos & J. Pecore (Eds.), Interplay of creativity and giftedness in science (pp. 351-365). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense.

Kim, K. H., Kaufman, J. C., Baer, J., & Sriraman, B. (2013 [google book preview]). Creatively gifted students are not like other gifted students: Research, theory, and practice. Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense.

Lee, H. O., & Kim, K. H. (2014 Entry). Resilience. In S. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Lee, H. O., & Kim, K. H. (2014 Entry). Ethnocentrism. In S. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Lee, H. O., & Kim, K. H. (2014). Tolerance. In S. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Pierce, A. R., & Kim, K. H. (2014 Entry). Third culture kids. In S. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kim, K. H., & Pierce, A. R. (2014 Entry). Cultural pluralism. In S. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kim, K. H., & Pierce, A. R. (2014 Entry). Culture fair tests. In S. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kim, K. H., & Pierce, A. R. (2014 Entry). School climate. In S. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kim, K. H., & Kim, S. (2014 Entry). Empathy. In S. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kim, K. H., & Kim, S. & (2014 Entry). Sensitivity. In S. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kim, K. H., & Kim, S. & (2014 Entry). Biculturism. In S. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kim, K. H., & Kim, S. & (2014). Acculturation and enculturation. In S. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kim, K. H., & Matthews, M. S. (2014 Entry). Cultural influences. In S. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kim, K. H., & Matthews, M. S. (2014 Entry). Cultural background. In S. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity and social justice.Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kim, K. H., & Matthews, M. S. (2014 Entry). Cultural maintenance. In S. Thompson (Ed.), Encyclopedia of diversity and social justice. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Kim, K. H., & Coxen, S. (2013 Chapter). The creativity crisis, possible causes, and what schools can do about it. In J. Jones & L. Flint (Eds.), The creative imperative: School librarians and teachers cultivating curiosity together. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

Kim, K. H., & Pierce, A. R. (2013 Entry). Adaptive creativity and innovative creativity. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Pierce, A. R. (2013 Entry). Convergent and divergent thinking. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Pierce, A. R. (2013 Entry). Creative personality. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Pierce, A. R. (2013 Entry). Creativity and age. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Pierce, A. R. (2013 Entry). Creativity and Confucianism. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Pierce, A. R. (2013 Entry). Creativity tests. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Pierce, A. R. (2013 Entry). Decrease in creativity. In E.G. Carayannis, Encyclopedia of Creativity, Invention, Innovation, and Entrepreneurship. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Kim, K. H., & Pierce, A. R. (2013 Chapter). Torrance’s innovator meter and the decline of creativity in America. In L. V. Shavinina, (Ed.), The International handbook of innovation education. New York: Taylor & Francis/Routledge.

Kim, K. H., & Zabelina, D. (2010 Entry). Underachievement. In M. A. Runco & S. R. Pritzker (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Creativity (2nd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier.

Kim, K. H., & Zabelina, D. (2010 Entry). Mentors. In M. A. Runco & S. R. Pritzker (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Creativity (2nd ed.). Oxford: Elsevier.

Kim, K. H., Cramond, B., & VanTassel-Baska, J. (2010 Chapter). The relationship between creativity and intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg & J. Kaufman (Eds.), Handbook of Creativity. New York: New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kim, K. H. (2010 Entry). The decline of creativity in the United States: 5 questions for educational psychologist Kyung Hee Kim. In K. Rogers (Ed.), Encyclopedia Britannica: Creativity.

Kim, K. H. (2009a [Chapter]). Developing creativity in gifted and talented students. In B. MacFarlane & T. Stambaugh (Eds.), Leading change in gifted education: The festschrift of Dr. Joyce VanTassel-Baska (pp. 37-48). Waco, TX: Prufrock Press.

Kim, K. H. (2009b [Chapter]). The Two Pioneers of Research on Creative Giftedness: Calvin W. Taylor and E. Paul Torrance. In L. V. Shavinina, (Ed.), International Handbook on Giftedness.

Cramond, B., & Kim, K. H. (2009). Creativity assessment and measurement.In B. Kerr (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Giftedness, Creativity, and Talent. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Kim, K. H. (2009 [Entry]). Creative Problem Solving. In B. Kerr (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Giftedness, Creativity, and Talent. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Kim, K. H. (2009 [Entry]). Factor analyses creativity. In B. Kerr (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Giftedness, Creativity, and Talent. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Kim, K. H. (2009 [Entry]). Originality. In B. Kerr (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Giftedness, Creativity, and Talent. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Cramond, B., & Kim, K. H. (2009 [Entry]). Torrance tests of creative thinking. In B. Kerr (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Giftedness, Creativity, and Talent. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications

Cramond, B., & Kim, K. H. (2007 [Chapter]). The role of creativity tools and measures in assessing potential and growth. In J. VanTassel-Baska (Ed.), Critical issues in equity and excellence in gifted education series: Alternative assessment with gifted and talented students (pp. 203-225). Waco, TX: Prufrock Press

Kim, K. H. (2007 [Chapter]). The two Torrance creativity tests: The Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking and Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement. In T. Ai-Girl (Ed.), Creativity: A handbook for teachers (pp. 117-141). Hackensack, NJ: World Scientific.

Cramond, B., & Kim, K. H. (2006). Torrance, E. Paul. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Measurement & Statistics. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Kim, K. H. (2006). Torrance Thinking Creatively in Action and Movement Test. In N. J. Salkind (Ed.), The Encyclopedia of Measurement & Statistics. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Kim, K. H. (2005). Is there any relationship between creativity and culture? In B. Silverberg, B. Fregger, B. Foley, & D. Swedlow (Eds.), Feel the Fire: Hot Keys to Creativity, American Creativity Association.

3) Other Non-refereed Publications
Kim, K. H. (in press). What parents should know to foster their children’s creativity. The Washington Post, 1-2

Kim, K. H.(2016 Spring Newsletter). Brainstorming doesn’t work: Try cross-pollination tips. Creativity Network Newsletter, Spring 2016. National Association for Gifted Children.

Kim, K. H.(2015 Fall Newsletter). What is creativity anyway? Creativity Network Newsletter, Fall 2015. National Association for Gifted Children.

Kim, K. H.(2015 June). What are the three keys to creative thinking processes? The Creativity Post. http://www.creativitypost.com/psychology/what_are_the_3_keys_to_the_creative_thinking_process

Kim, K. H.(2015 Spring). The three keys to creative thinking. Creativity Network Newsletter, Spring 2015. National Association for Gifted Children.

Kim, K. H.(2014 Fall). Cultivating passion for creativity and creative climate. Creativity Network Newsletter, Fall 2014. National Association for Gifted Children.

Kim, K. H. (2012 Fall). America’s Children Losing Creativity since 1990. Creativity Network Newsletter, 1-2. National Association for Gifted Children.

Kim, K. H. (2012 July). Yes, there is a creativity crisis. The Creativity Post. http://www.creativitypost.com/education/yes_there_is_a_creativity_crisis

Kim, K. H. (2012). Successful Creativity: Creative Climate, Creative Attitude, and Creative Thinking.Seoul, Korea: TheKorea Invention Promotion Association & The Korea Ministry of Education, Science & Technology.

Kim, K. H. (2005 [Article]). Who is creative? Are you creative? Duke University Talent Identification Program (TIP)-Duke Gifted Letter: Insight, 15(1), 1-2.

Kim, K. H. (2004 [Article]). From the editor. Journal of Secondary Gifted Education, 16, 4.

Cramer, S., Cohen, A., Garberson, L., Webb, M-Y., & Kim, K. H. (2004). Standard Setting Report for the Enhanced Georgia High School Graduation Tests. The Center for Test Scoring and Reporting Services, University of Georgia.

Kim, K. H. (2002 [Article]). South Korea, a stable with stable business. The Newspaper of the University of South Florida.

6. Research Grants
The Korea Foundation awarded a field research grant to Dr. Kim in 2008, for the purpose of studying the characteristics of underachieving students in Korea (2008 [Letter]). The As a consequence, she had the opportunity to work with teachers and students in public, middle and high schools in Korea and was able to help many gifted students who had been unable to perform at their optimal academic ability level.

She has received several research grants. A brief description of each grant is as follow:

Kim, K. H. (2010). Creative personality and anti/pro-creative school environment as predictive factors in high school dropouts: Using Data from ELS and NELS (Letter). Summer Research Award ($4,000) The College of William and Mary.

Kim, K. H. (2008). Eastern Michigan University Faculty Research Fellowship (Letter). SS & M (Supplies, Services & Materials) Award ($2,840.00), Eastern Michigan University. July, 2008.

Kim, K. H. (2008). The relationship between creativity and underachievement among Korean and American elementary and high school students.

Grant awarded from the Field Research Fellowship Program, The Korea Foundation (Letter). Awarded amount: $10,302.96. May, 2008.

Kim, K. H. (2010). The 2008 Hollingworth Research Award ($2,500). The 55th Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children (NAGC), Tampa, FL, October 31, 2008.

Kim, K. H. (2007). Eastern Michigan University Faculty Research Fellowship. Released-Time/Spring-Summer Research Award, Eastern Michigan University (Letter). April, 2007.

Kim, K. H. (2007). Eastern Michigan University Faculty Research Fellowship. Cash Award ($3,000.00), Eastern Michigan University (Letter). September, 2007.

Kim, K. H., & Hull, M. F. (2007). Effects of the Name Cards-Method on Students’ Participation and Academic Achievement in a College Statistical Application in Educational Research Class. Student-faculty Partnerships for Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (SOTL) Projects of the Carnegie Academy for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning’s Institutional Leadership Initiative. SOTL at Eastern Michigan University (Letter). $1,500.00 ($1,000.00 for the student partner; $500.00 for the costs of project expenses), June, 2007.

Kim, K. H. (2005). Graduate Student Travel Grants, the College of Education, The University of Georgia, $600.00, April, 2005.

Kim, K. H. (2004). Graduate Student Travel Grants, the College of Education, The University of Georgia, $800.00, July, 2004.

7. Refereed Scholar Research Presentations
Dr. Kim's scholarly activities include presentations at national and international conferences, in addition to her publishing efforts. Her paper presentations have offered empirical data regarding the assessment and understanding of creativity and are valuable contributions in the field of Education and Psychology. These presentations were a substantial undertaking. Her status as first author on many of these presentations reflects the fact that she was solely responsible for the design of the research study and the collection of data. All of the presentations required a proposal acceptance process requiring a blind review by a jury of professionals. The followings are a brief description of each presentation. In front of each description, there is *, no mark, or † , which indicates the level of the conference at which each presentation was given. * indicates a local level; no mark indicates a national level; and † indicates an international level.

Langford, M, & Kim, K. H. (2014, March Program). Creativity and Transition: Nurturing the creative potential of TCKS. Paper presented at the 16th Annual FIGT (Families in Global Transition) conference: The Global Family: Redefined, Tyson’s Corner, VA, March 21-23, 2014.

Kim, K. H., & Cramond, B. (2013, November).Super Sessions: Fostering Creative Attitude and Creative Thinking Using The Torrance Creativity Tests. Paper presented at the 60th Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, Indianapolis, IN, November 7-10, 2013.

Abeel, L., & Kim, K. H. (2013, November).Super Sessions: The Creativity Crisis: What Can We Do About It? Paper presented at the 60th Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, Indianapolis, IN, November 7-10, 2013.

Glazek, K., Gregerson, M. B., Kim, K. H., & Reiter-Palmon, R. (2013, August). Links among creativity in educational and professional contexts. Symposium held at the 119th Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., July 31-August 4, 2013.

Russ, S., Plucker, J.A., & Kim, K. H. (2011, August Program). Changes in Creativity in Children: What Does the Research Say? Symposium held at the 119th Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C., August 4 – 7, 2011.

Kim, K. H., Bland, L., VanTassel-Baska, J., & Bracken, B. (2010, November [Letter]). Project Clarion: Assessing science reasoning and conceptual understanding in the primary grades using performance measures. Paper presented at the 57th Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, Atlanta, GA, November 11-14, 2010.

Lee, H., & Kim, K. H. (2010, November [Letter]). Does immersing diverse culture benefit to be creative? : How and why? Paper presented at the 57th Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, Atlanta, GA, November 11-14, 2010.

Kim, K. H., Hull, M. F., & Laurence, C. (2010, November [Letter]). Motivation factors and college choice among gifted students: Findings from Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. Paper presented at the 57th Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, Atlanta, GA, November 11-14, 2010.

Kim, K. H., Cross, T., Laurence, C., Cross, J., & Miller, A. (2010, November [Letter]). Direct and indirect effects of creativity and personality on suicidal ideation among honors college students. Paper presented at the 57th Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, Atlanta, GA, November 11-14, 2010.

Cross, T., Laurence, C., Cross, J., Miller, A., & Kim, K. H., ([Letter). Direct and indirect effects of Goal orientation and social coping skills on suicidal ideation among honors college students. Paper presented at the 57th Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, Atlanta, GA, November 11-14, 2010.

Cheng, Y-L., & Kim, K. H. (2010, August [Program]). Relationships between the creative styles and academic achievements. Paper presented at the 118th Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Diego, CA, August 12 – 15, 2010.

Kaufman, J. C., Ivcevic, Z., Beghetto, R.A., & Kim, K. H. (2010, August [Program]). Eastern conceptions of creativity. Paper presented at the Symposium of Self-Assessed Creativity and Actual Creative Behavior at the 118th Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Diego, CA, August 12 – 15, 2010.

Hull, M. F., & Kim, K. H (2010, April [Program]). The effect of motivation on students’ post-secondary institutional choice: Findings from Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. Paper presented at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Denver, CO, April 3-May 4, 2010.

Hull, M. F., Kim, K. H., & Kim, M. (2010, April [Program]). The effect of motivation on students’ post-secondary institutional choice among high ability students. Paper presented at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Denver, CO, April 3-May 4, 2010.

Kim, K. H., VanTassel-Baska, J., Bracken, B. A., & Bland, L. (2010, April [Program]). Project Clarion: New science curriculum for K-third grade students in Title I schools. Paper presented at the 2010 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Denver, CO, April 3-May 4, 2010.

Lee, H. & Kim, K. H. (2009, November [Letter]). Do linguistically diverse gifted minority students prefer the specific ways of being creative? Paper presented at the 56th Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, St. Louis, MO, November 5-8, 2009.

Kim, K. H. et al. (2009, November [Letter]). Keys to classroom creativity. Paper presented at the 56th Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, St. Louis, MO, November 5-8, 2009.

Kim, K. H. et al. (2009, November [Letter]). Panel Honoring Dr. Joyce VanTassel-baska’s Contributions to Gifted Education. Paper presented at the 56th Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, St. Louis, MO, November 5-8, 2009.

Cramond, B., Daniels, S., Kaufman, J., Kim, K. H., Makel, M., & Matthews, M. (2009, November [Letter]). Championing creativity in the classroom and curriculum. Paper presented at the 56th Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, St. Louis, MO, November 5-8, 2009.

Kim, K. H. (2009, August [Program]). Are the Torrance Tests Still Relevant in the 21st Century? The Division 10 Debate. Paper presented at the 117th Convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada, August 6 – 10, 2009.

Kim, K. H. (2009, August [Program]). Past, Present, Future of My Research on Creativity. At receiving the Berlyne Award---In Recognition of Outstanding Research by a Junior Scholar. Speech held at the 117th Convention of the American Psychological Association, Toronto, Canada, August 7, 2009.

†Mathews, M. S., Cramond, B., Landis, R. N., & Kim, K. H. (2009, August [Presentation]). Understanding high-ability high school drop-outs in the context of USA schools. Paper presented at the 18th Biennial World Conference on Gifted and Talented Children, Vancouver, Canada, August 3 – 7, 2009.

Kim, K. H., Shim, J-Y., Park, S-G., & Hull, M. H. (2009, April [Program]). Killing the creative potential of a Korean mathematical prodigy: A three-year case study. Paper presented at the 2009 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA, April 13 – 17, 2009.

Shim, J-Y., Kim, K. H., & Park, S-G. (2009, April [Program]). Comparisons of ability and creative potential between gifted and regular students in rural and urban settings. Paper presented at the 2009 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA, April 13 – 17, 2009.

Kim, K. H., Park, S-G., Shim, J-Y., & Hull, M. H. (2009, April [Program]). Influence of parents’ Confucianism on children’s creativity among Koreans. Paper presented at the 2009 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, San Diego, CA, April 13 – 17, 2009.

Cramond, B., Kim, K. H., Mathews, M. S., & Landis, R. N. (2008, November [Program]). Are high schools meeting the needs of our highly creative students? A research panel on reasons why high ability students drop out of school. Paper presented at the 55th Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, Tampa, FL, October 29-November 2, 2008.

Kim, K. H., & Hull, M. (2008, November [Program]). An examination of creative personality and anti/pro-creative school environment as predictive factors in high school underachieving and dropouts: Using data from ELS, NELS, and local high school students. Paper presented at the 55th Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, Tampa, FL, October 29- November 2, 2008.

Kim, K. H. (2008, August [Program]). Why do bright students drop out? Findings from the National Educational Longitudinal Study. Paper presented at the 116th Convention of the American Psychological Association, Boston, MA, August 14 – 17, 2008.

Kim, K. H. (2008, April [Program]). The Relationship between creativity and underachievement among American and Korean students. Paper presented at the 2008 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, New York, NY, April 24 – 28, 2008

*Hull, M. F., & Kim, K. H. (2008, March [Letter]). Effects of the name Cards-method on students' participation and academic achievement in a college statistical application in educational research class. Paper presented at the Eastern Michigan University Graduate Students Research Symposium.

*Goff, C., & Kim, K. H. (2008, March [Letter]). Student learning analysis in evaluation and assessment class in teacher education. Paper presented at the Eastern Michigan University Graduate Students Research Symposium.

†Kim, K. H. (2008, January [Proposal]). Is creativity related to high school dropouts? An analysis of National Educational Longitudinal Study Data. Paper presented at the 2008 International Costa Rican Educational Adventure in Creativity Theory and Empiricism (CREATE) Conference, Costa Rica January 3 – 8, 2008.

Cheng, Y-L., & Kim, K. H. (2007, August [Program]). The relationship between personality types and creativity in Americans and Taiwanese. Paper presented at the 115th Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA, August 17-20, 2007.

Kim, K. H., & Lee, H. E. (2007, August [Program]). Cultural influence on creativity: A comparative study of creativity and creativity types between Easterners and Westerners. Paper presented at the 115th Convention of the American Psychological Association, San Francisco, CA, August 17 – 20, 2007.

Kim, K. H., & Cramond, B. (2007, April [Program]). The relationship between creativity and behavior problems among Korean elementary and high school underachievers. Paper presented at the 2007 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association. Chicago, IL, April 9 – 13, 2007.

Kim, K. H., & Lee, H. E (2007, March [Program]). Creativity tests: What do they measure and are they valid? Paper presented at the 2007 American Creativity Association International Conference, Austin, TX, March 20-24, 2007.

Kim, K. H. (2007, March [Program]). Is culture a major influence on creativity? Western and Eastern Cultural effects on Creativity. Paper presented at the 2007 American Creativity Association International Conference, Austin, TX, March 20 – 24, 2007.

Kim, K. H., Shim, J.Y., & Cramond, B. (2006, November [Program]). Parental attitude’s influence on children’s creativity. Paper presented at the 53rd Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, Charlotte, NC, November 1-5, 2006.

Kim, K. H., Shim, J. Y., & Cramond, B. (2006, November [Program]). Missing creative students: Characteristics of science-gifted, language-gifted, and regular students. Paper presented at the 53rd Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, Charlotte, NC, November 1-5, 2006.

Kim, K. H., Shim, J.Y., & Cramond, B. (2006, November [Program]). Conceptualizing giftedness in Korea. Paper presented at the 53rd Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, Charlotte, NC, November 1-5, 2006.

Kim, K. H. (2005, November [Program]). Can creativity tests predict what IQ tests cannot? A quantitative synthesis. Paper presented at the 52nd Annual Convention of the National Association for Gifted Children, Louisville, KY, November 9-13, 2005.

Kim, K. H. (2005, August [Program]). The relationship between intelligence and creativity among Korean Students. Paper presented at the 113th Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, August 18-21, 2005.

Kim, K. H. (2005, August [Program]). A comparative creativity study of American and Korean educators. Paper presented at the 113th Convention of the American Psychological Association, Washington, DC, August 18 – 21, 2005.

Kim, K. H. (2005, August [Presentation]). The relationship between creativity and underachievement among gifted students. Paper presented at the 16th Biennial World Council for Gifted and Talented Children, New Orleans, LA, August 3 – 7, 2005.

†Kim, K. H. (2005, August [Presentation]). The relationship between creativity and intelligence: A Meta-Analysis. Paper presented at the 16th Biennial World Council for Gifted and Talented Children in New Orleans, LA, August 3 – 7, 2005.

† Cramond, B., Kim, K. H., Ebrahim, P., Pang, W. S., Azeyedo, I. (2005, August [Presentation]). Worldviews of creativity: Its assessment, nurturance, and value among different countries. Paper presented at the 16th Biennial World Council for Gifted and Talented Children in New Orleans, LA, August 3 – 7, 2005.

Kim, K. H., & Cramond, B. (2005, April [Program]). Cultural influence on creativity: The relationship between Confucianism and creativity among Korean students. Paper presented at the 2005 Annual Meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Montreal, Canada, April 11 – 15, 2005.

Kim, K. H. (2005, April [Program]). Culture and creativity. Paper presented at the 2005 American Creativity Association International Conference, Austin, TX, March 30-April 2, 2005.

*Kim. K. H. (2005, March [Letter]). Understanding our creatively gifted underachievers. Paper presented at the 27th Annual Convention of the Georgia Association for Gifted Children, Athens, GA, March 10-12, 2005.

† Kim, K. H. (2004, August [Letter]). The Relationship between Confucianism and creativity among American and Korean Teachers for Gifted Children. Paper presented at the International Council of Psychologists (ICP) conference, Jinan, Shandong, China, August 3 – 6, 2004.

Kim, K. H., Cramond, B., & Bandalos, D. L. (2004, July [Program]). The latent structure of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking -Figural. Paper presented at the 112th Convention of the American Psychological Association, Honolulu, HI, July 28 - August 1, 2004.

† Kim, K. H. (2004, July [Program]). The comparisons between Asian and American education: Diligence or creativity? Paper presented at the 8th Asian-Pacific Conference on Giftedness, Daejeon, Korea, July 26-30, 2004.

† Cramond, B., Kim, K. H., Lee, S-Y., & Lee, J. Y. (2004, July [Program]). E. Paul Torrance: His Life, Accomplishments, & Legacy. Special Symposium for the 8th Asian-Pacific Conference on Giftedness held in Daejeon, Korea, July 26 - 30, 2004.

† Kim, K. H., & Cramond, B. (2004, July [Program]). An instrument for identification and selection of the gifted and talented. Paper presented at the 8th Asian-Pacific Conference on Giftedness, Daejeon, Korea, July 26-30, 2004.

*Kim, K. H. (2004, April [Flyer]). Confirmatory factor analyses and multiple group analyses on the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking. Paper presented at the Research Symposium: The preparation of Educators, Athens, GA: University of Georgia (April 30). Sponsored by Georgia Systemic Teacher Education Program.

8.Dr. Kim’s Research Implications
Creativity transforms the good into the best. But creativity is declining. Dr. Kim fears that America is becoming a tiger mother, sharpening its tiger claws and slipping into an orange-and-black-striped costume to educate children. With an open-minded attitude, it’s useful to learn from others, including tiger mothers and Confucian cultures. However, a complete adoption of tiger-mother parenting/teaching—and especially Confucian exam hell—will not lead to innovation. Parents and educators from America’s past were comfortable with and understood that not all the answers could be found on standardized tests. They cultivated the 4S climates and nurtured the 4S attitudes in children. They produced children who were resourceful cross-pollinators, curious optimists, resilient hard workers, and defiant dreamers who applied ION thinking skills for innovation. The defiant spirit—not test-taking skill— resulted in generations of American innovators.

History has shown that it only takes a few parents or educators to make striking advances for humankind. The three practical steps of cultivating creative climates, nurturing creative attitudes, and applying creative-thinking skills will help parents and educators guide children to recapture the innovation that’s being tested out of them. When they cultivate 4S climates that nurture children’s 4S attitudes at home and in school—rather than fostering anti-creative climates that bonsai children’s creative potential—they can greatly increase future innovation.

9. Dr. Kim’s Present and Future Research
Dr. Kim has co-invented the concepts of real-time interactive online creativity tests based on her CATs (as she has been known as a creativity assessment expert, and Newsweek originally interviewed her for her work in measuring creativity—not for the Creativity Crisis). She is in the process of prototyping her patent-pending creativity tests: iCreativity. Her new revolutionary visual tests—using online eye-tracking cameras—are for children and adults, which can eliminate the negative exercise and negative social desirability effects of old tests. The tests take less than 45 minutes to complete anywhere in the world and are scored automatically, instantly, and objectively—not only with the scores, but also with feedback and analysis on each individual’s profile of creative climate, attitude, and thinking skills.

Dr. Kim’s present and future research for iCreativity will help identify creative potential early in individuals, especially in children. Then, parents and educators can follow in the footsteps of those who inspired, encouraged, taught, challenged, and mentored the greatest innovators in history—by cultivating the 4S climates to nurture 4S attitudes in children so that the children can apply ION-thinking skills for their CPI and eventually innovation. Only individuals who experience the diverse soil climate (diverse resources and experiences),the bright sun climate (inspiration and encouragement),the fierce storm climate(high expectations and challenges), and the free space climate (freedom to be alone and unique) can become the innovative light of the world!

11. From Dr. Kim's Research to Her Teaching and Service
It is Dr. Kim's belief that scholarly activities are important to remain current in one’s field (and that they improve her teaching), to contribute to the profession, and to have an impact or influence on the direction or focus of a field. She has sought to remain active in scholarly activities because of this deeply held belief. Further, her scholarly activities tend to relate to her teaching and/or service activities. In fact, her teaching and service activities are entwined such that each impacts and inspires the other.