Instructional Outcomes
Having a Clear Idea of the Function of the Course in Its Role in Preparing Students for Careers
I believe that my courses serve important functions in developing professionalism in both undergraduate and graduate students.

At EMU.
EDPS 340. The course served multiple functions in the preparation of future teachers including developing familiarity with state standards and benchmarks, creating traditional and authentic assessments, and evaluating students learning. Each of these skills are critical for a student teaching portfolio and are key to becoming an effective and mindful classroom teacher. In addition, the close relationship between the projects in EDPS 340 and CURR 304/305 emphasized the important relationship between assessment and instruction and the essential role assessment plays in quality instruction. Students’ final Classroom Assessment Plan (CAP) project (Sample CAP1, CAP2, CAP3, & CAP4) and Student Learning Analysis (SLA) project (Sample SLA) were authentic learning experiences that undergraduate students could actually use when they become teachers.

Giftedness and creativity courses (EDPS 504 & EDPS 614). The courses were designed to explore historical and contemporary theories regarding the nature, development, and measurement of creativity or giftedness. For example, the students focus on examining the creative person, process, product, and environment through the eyes of creative individuals as well as through those of the most eminent theorists, philosophers, and researchers in related fields for EDPS 614. Their final projects (Sample Final Presentations) can be used for educating other educators and parents or for publication in journals in the field of creativity. Most of the students for this course are already educators. Thus, one of my goals was to teach them to identify creative students and to further develop and enhance these students' creative potential. Students are also encouraged to reflect on their own creative potential, including both their strengths and weaknesses, so that they may fulfill their own creative possibilities.

Statistics courses (EDPS 621& EDPS 651). These courses were designed as introductions to behavioral science statistics for educational professionals. However, I focus more on the application of statistical procedures applied to research rather than merely conceptual aspects of behavioral science and statistics. After students completed their final data analysis projects (Data Analysis Project Directions), I expected them to be able to apply the knowledge and skills learned in this course to their own research using the SPSS software. Simultaneously, students were able to understand published scientific research studies and to evaluate them critically. The final data analysis project and two tests were completed through authentic application of real data sets (that were either provided for them or created by them through interests external to the class, either academic or professional). Fundamentally, I wanted to encourage the development of educators who are committed to their own ongoing professional growth and are aware of research relating to issues in our culturally diverse society.

At W&M.
Research & developmental courses (EDPS 677 , EDUCF 09, EDUCF 65, & EDUC 663). The emphasis of EDPS 677 and EDUCF 65 are on consuming research rather than producing it, whereas the emphasis of EDUC 663 is on producing research. However, I believe that students need to create their own research proposal (Sample Research Proposal) to become both better consumers and better producers of research. My students are encouraged to apply the principles and underlying concepts of educational research from these courses to their own areas of interest as education professionals. I believe that students learn best by doing and by making mistakes while doing. If they only learn by being told they will most probably forget the subject in the future. One of my students commented:
This course had a lot of material to cover in a very short time so it was challenging. I can see how students who did not have any background in research would have been extremely overwhelmed with the amount of work and content in this course. However, Dr. Kim made her expectations of the class form the first day and we knew we would have to work very hard. She made herself available to anyone who required extra help and was more than generous with her feedback on our assignments to ensure we really understood the material and to help us write a research proposal as correctly as possible. I thought it was good to do educational research to learn how to find research articles in the field of education so I can use those resources to when I become a teacher. I think Dr. Kim’s primary goal for us was to teach us to be critical thinkers when it comes to the world of research and not believe every article we read, but most importantly to use the information we learn from important studies and put it into practice when we become teachers. I think she achieved this goal very well and I enjoyed the material we learned in class. Thanks for working so hard for us, Dr. Kim. We appreciated it very much. I will try to do the same for my students (W&M Research Methods class course evaluation, Summer ’09).”

My teaching practices have confirmed my beliefs through the quality of my students’ work as well as their formal and informal evaluations of my teaching. The quality of my students work has been demonstrated by accepted proposals from the AERA (2009), APA (2007, 2009 [Ms. Henry at W&M], [Ms. Lorio at W&M], [Ms. Webster at W&M]), NAGC (2008) conferences and being accepted for publication (Sample Publication). I have helped students write and submit research proposals for applying for research grants (Sample Grant Proposal). I have also helped students select appropriate journals, write a cover letter (Sample Cover Letter), and submit their final literature reviews to journal editors (Sample Manuscript), after they completed EDPS 677, EDUCF 09, or EDUCF 65.

I am currently teaching EDUC 663 for doctoral students. I have helped my students in this course with choosing their research topic by meeting them individually and asking them to get their advisor’s approval for a possible dissertation topic in their program area. In addition, I help them with finding appropriate primary and secondary sources because they are required to use at least 20 peer-reviewed journal articles, and 15 of them must be primary sources. As I give each lecture on writing a research proposal, I use each student’s actual research proposal to help him or her with writing each section of their proposals while I teach. I understand that most of the students in this class are first year doctoral students, and as such, they may not have specific ideas for their dissertation topics yet. However, writing a research proposal that might become part of their future dissertation can encourage students to start thinking about their dissertation topics early. This can benefit the students by 1) encouraging them to think about their projects or assignments as being possible material for their future dissertations; 2) by making it possible for students to submit their proposals for dissertation grants to help themselves financially (this is especially important because of the way most dissertation grants are awarded; and 3) finally, this can also be beneficial for their selection of courses in their doctoral program. For example, if they can identify the kinds of research methods that they could use for data analyses for their dissertation early, they can take specific courses from inside or outside the SOE to gain the knowledge needed. Beyond that, they can attend national data base training while they are still students, as two of my students have attended.

Evaluating Students to Measure the Attainment of Objectives
I want students to leave my classes with skill sets that nurture good assessors, practitioners, educators, and researchers -- not just good test takers. My grading scales reflect my belief in the developmental nature of learning, with homework and class participation being worth as much as mid-term and final exams. Projects that require applying the knowledge and skills imparted in class are more important than memorizing information and as such, are worth the majority of points in my classes. My expectations for projects are made clearly through examples, specific directions, and continual feedback, through conversations outside of class, and e-mail. My exam questions and projects require students to go beyond recall and require the application and analysis of key constructs covered in the class. One of my students commented:
What I found most outstanding about this professor aside from her expertise and credentials in the subject, was her dedication and commitment to her students, not just as students at W & M but as future teachers. She was very personable and approachable, and the course was taught in such a way that I felt totally prepared for the final exam without having to invest a whole lot of extra time cramming for it (W&M Research Methods class course evaluation, Summer ’09).”

This level of understanding is important to developing educators in EDPS 340 who will be exposed to a wide variety in material and assessments as they refine their work in their future careers. This level of understanding is even more important for students in my other courses who range from individuals with limited college math experience to central district administrators who are responsible for analyzing and interpreting standard test data. Multiple forms of assessment, including homework, weekly exams, projects, mid-term, and final exams, provide multiple windows into understanding and allow multiple avenues for students to demonstrate their mastery of course objectives.

Using Fair Evaluation Procedures in Evaluating Students
Assessing student learning in a fair and reasonable manner requires that I maintain an unbiased and consistent approach to my assessment and that my methods of assessment are appropriate to the course objectives. In my assessment of student learning, I strive to be fair and reasonable. One method I use to ensure fairness is the use of blind-grading. Although I would expect myself to be unbiased when grading papers and exams even with student names, I think that using a number system further removes the potential for bias. While some papers and exams have students’ names on them, for more important general assignments I ask students use a number which I assign to each student at the beginning of the semester. Thereafter, I assign grades to a student's number and do not correlate these numbers to student names until final grades are calculated. I also ensure fairness by grading papers and exams once from the first student number to the last and again from the last student number to the first. This helps ensure randomness, and even grading of papers relatively unaffected by other students' achievements. Finally, I post rubrics for each assignment early in the semester so that the students know even before they start working on each assignment what I expect from their work. Examples of the rubrics for EDUC F9 (Literautre Review Rubric) and EDUC F65 (Literature Reveiw Rubric & Research Proposal Rubric) be accessed with this hyperlink. Then, I evaluate their work according to the rubrics and provide the students with their rubric as well as grades. As an instructor, I have gained a reputation for having high expectations of my students. This may be due to my cultural background, which places a high value on work ethics and education, as I revealed in my publications comparing American and Asian Education (Kim, 2005b). I strive to give an early indication of my expectations, however, formal and informal student evaluations have at times opined that I am a “harsh grader.” While I try not to be harsh, I do maintain high expectations, and I am encouraged by student comments about my grading that include:
Dr. Kim is a great professor who expects her students to provide quality work. At the graduate degree level, this is what should be expected. She holds her students accountable for completing all assignments and requires regular class attendance. Again, as graduate students we should expect this yet many viewed this as harsh or overly demanding (W&M Life Span class course evaluation, Spring ’09).”

In assessing their learning, I tend to be a “tough grader.” However, I work hard for my students, and I expect them to approach their studies with the intensity and commitment that I exemplify. Given this and my concomitant desire to see students succeed, I strive to be very clear about my goals, objectives, and expectations. I do so in the hope that students will understand my expectations, and that they will be able to determine how to succeed in my classes. Figure 1 (earlier in the Teaching Effectiveness section) confirms that I am especially strong in "(11) Fair and impartial in feedback, comments, and grading," because my students have rated me far above the average of the SOE in this criterion on their formal course evaluation form. Related to this criterion, a student commented:
Grading was strict but fair (W&M Life Span class course evaluation, Spring ’09).”